There are a number of books that not only taught me something but helped shape the way I think and opened up a whole new world. One such book was Mapping the Mind by Rita Carter, not as you might imagine a book about mind mapping but the Brain. Rita Carter is a science journalist rather than a neuroscientist and understands that it’s not about what she knows but what she can explain.
Having a better understanding of how the brain works will help do far more than improve your grades in a biology exam, you will develop insight as to why something works not only that it does. As a result, you can be confident you are using the most effective brain friendly learning techniques.
Rita Carter provides us with an excellent description of the brain, that it is as big as a coconut, the shape of a walnut, the colour of uncooked liver and consistency of firm jelly.
Imagine a cross section of the brain, taken from the side, alternatively look at the diagram opposite.
The cerebrum or cortex is the largest part of the human brain and is associated with higher brain function such as thought and action. It is divided into four sections.
- Frontal lobe – associated with reasoning, planning, some speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving
- Parietal Lobe – associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli
- Occipital Lobe – associated with visual processing
- Temporal Lobe – associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech
The cerebellum coordinates movements such as posture, balance, and speech. Next to this is the brain stem, which includes the medulla and pons. These are the older parts of the brain and evolved over 500 million years ago. In fact, if you touch the back of your head and bring your hand forward over the top towards your nose, this effectively maps the ages in which the brain developed.
The Limbic system is largely associated with emotions but contains the hippocampus which is essential for long term memory and learning.
Synaptic gap – Cells that fire together wire together (Hebbian theory)
Although learning is complex, a large amount takes place in the limbic system because this is where the hippocampus sits. Here our memories are catalogued to be filed away in long-term storage across other parts of the cerebral cortex.
What comes next is important because it’s here within the hippocampus where neurons connect across what is called the synaptic gap that learning arguably begins. Synaptic transmission is the process whereby a neuron sends an electrical message, the result of a stimulus across the synaptic gap to another neuron that is waiting to receive it. The neuron’s never touch, the gap is filled by chemicals referred to as neurotransmitters examples of which include dopamine and serotonin. These are often referred to as the body’s chemical messengers.
Learning is making new connections, remembering is keeping them
When the stimulus is repeated the relationship between the neurons becomes stronger and so a memory is formed and learning has taken place. The whole process is called long term potentiation (LTP).
How does this help?
All a bit technical perhaps but very important as it explains so much. It is the reason that repetition is so valuable, for example, if you are reading something and it’s not going in, you need to fire those neurons again but perhaps using different stimulus. Try saying it out loud or drawing a picture alongside the text.
Don’t forget the blog I wrote in January 2018 that explained brain plasticity and how the brain changes as those new neural connections are made, a process called Neurogenesis.
The neurotransmitters, those chemicals released to fill the synaptic gap are also important as each one is different. For example, in addition to making you feel good, it’s likely that when you feel anxious your brain is releasing high levels of serotonin.
Although it’s fair to say there is still much we don’t understand about the brain, I hope the blog has helped remove some of the mystery of learning, it’s not a magical process but a scientific one.
- How to learn major parts of the brain quickly
- Long term potentiation and synaptic plasticity
- What Happens When You Remove the Hippocampus? The most examined brain in history
Dedicated to my dog Jack – our family dog and best friend
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It’s true! Repetition is useful in learning transfer and memory formation. You have described the anatomical and functional regions of brain in details. That’s nice for reading and understanding. Our schools are running on default education. High class teaching is provided in the classroom, but it does not process learning transfer to student’s brain circuits.
You may find that neuroscientists are silent in academic perspectives how to conduct book to brain knowledge transfer in the classroom. Brain learning never happens in classroom teaching, so homework is given to school children to make brainpage in home learning. Neuroscience has done nothing for the advancement of school system in which high speed learning transfer could be provided in the classroom instead of teaching performance. Thanks for the writing